Skip to main content

Environmental Services

icon environment landing

Avian Protection, Assessment & Mitigation

EDM has developed hundreds of Avian Protection Plans (APPs) and Avian Risk Assessments (ARAs) for small and large electric utilities, mining companies, oil and gas operators, military facilities, and federal agencies throughout the U.S. and abroad. APPs and ARAs provide a roadmap for managing avian and wildlife interactions with power lines, substations, communication towers, wind turbines, and mining/oil and gas infrastructure. Clients report that EDM’s APPs improve system reliability, safety, regulatory compliance, and public relations. Agencies reviewing the APPs describe them as exemplary.


  • Avian Protection Plans
  • Electrocution and Collision Risk Assessments
  • Standards Development and Review
  • Avian-Friendly Retrofits and Mitigation Plans
  • Bird Streamer and Pollution Review and Mitigation
  • Animal-caused Outage Investigations and Mitigation
  • New Construction Design and Review (Distribution, Transmission, Substations)
  • Perch and Nest Management
  • Avian Program Implementation Support
  • Training and Workshops
  • Computer Based Training Module Development
  • Litigation Support
  • UAS Line Marking, Nest Inspections, and Habitat Mapping
  • Wildlife/Wildfire Ignition Risk Assessment
  • Research and Development of Mitigation Solutions


EDM developed an APP and ARA for a large multi-state investor-owned utility with over 20,000 miles of distribution and transmission lines across a major metropolitan region with globally important bird habitat. A GIS-based analysis of bird use, habitat, and infrastructure data identified target survey areas. Field biologists assessed dozens of avian and power line variables to determine avian electrocution and collision risk; for each hazardous structure or line span, EDM assigned a retrofitting priority and recommended a retrofitting approach. EDM’s deliverables included short- and long-term planning tools for reducing avian risk and improving system reliability. EDM developed updated construction standards and training modules to ensure the plans could be fully implemented and reliability and conservation goals could be achieved. EDM also tailored communications materials to facilitate company outreach to customers, regulators, and employees.

Avian Assessment Edm International Hawk 01
Avian Assessment Edm International Hawk02
Avian Assessment Edm International Hawk03
EDM International Avian Assessment 4
Avian Assessment Edm International Hawk 05
Avian Assessment Edm International 07
Avian Assessment Edm International Woodpecker 08
Avian Assessment Edm International 09
Avian Assessment Edm International 10
Avian Assessment Edm International Owl 11
Avian Assessment Edm International 12
Avian Assessment Edm International 13
Avian Assessment Edm International 14
Avian Assessment Edm International 15
Avian Assessment Edm International 16


Raptors on the Line Video

Watch EDM’s award winning film Raptors on the Line! Raptors and power lines have a complicated symbiotic relationship. They use them to perch, hunt and even nest, especially in landscapes where the power pole gives them the best vantage point to see prey. But their body size exposes them to the risk of electrocution by bridging two conductors and completing an electric circuit. In the 1970's, a handful of scientists and researchers discovered that Golden Eagles were being electrocuted, largely in the American West. Over the next decade, that discovery led to further investigations into the biology of raptor electrocution and preliminary findings on how power pole engineering could provide a solution. After more than 20 years, and through the tireless work of the expert environmental services team at EDM International, utility companies in the U.S. are making incredible progress on reducing raptor deaths. There is much work to be done though. Developing countries are specifically a challenge, and recent discoveries of avian electrocution caused wildfires bring renewed urgency to retrofit and implement avian-friendly construction standards across the industry.

Guide to Raptor Remains

guide raptor remainsMany utilities check for or incidentally encounter avian carcasses along power lines. When carcasses are found, identifying the species can help understand how incidents occurred, how to prevent them, and whether there may be regulatory reporting implications. The Guide to Raptor Remains can help identify species when decomposed carcasses, bone pieces, feathers or pellets are found.

Bird Strike Indicator - BSI

BSI is an automated, cost-effective tool for continuous detection and recording of bird collisions on power and communication lines.

The Bird Strike Indicator (BSI) is an automated vibration-sensing and recording tool designed to detect bird strikes on aerial cables such as power lines and guy wires. It affordably provides utilities the ability to identify the most dangerous line segments and determine the effectiveness of line marking devices. The BSI uses accelerometers to record stress waves and vibrations caused by a bird strike. The BSI sensors are installed on the monitored wires and transmit strike activity wirelessly to a nearby base station where the data is recorded.

Video: Raptors at Risk

raptors at risk videoISSUE WITH THE BEMS LINK
Video: Raptors at Risk EDM’s role is often that of educator through serving as host or participant in workshops on animal interactions with electric utility infrastructure. Educational projects include the development of an interactive web site on raptor electrocutions for the California Energy Commission,, and a product encyclopedia of mitigating products for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EDM co-produced the award winning video/DVD “Raptors at Risk,” as well as a photographic field guide for identifying raptor remains. To purchase these publications and view a list of the Environmental Services Group publications, please contact us at the number below or via email.
Click here to order a copy of the "Raptors at Risk" video.

Environmental Publications

Below is a link to our up-to-date list of publications produced from the folks in EDM’s Environmental Services sector. Feel free to print out a copy for your review.

EDM’s Environmental Services Group is a team of wildlife biologists, avian specialists, soil scientists, hydrologists, regulatory specialists and GIS experts. EDM works collaboratively across disciplines to develop practical, science-based solutions to high-profile environmental challenges on behalf of electric utilities, extractive industries, government agencies and non-governmental organizations. EDM is internationally known for research and consultation on avian electrocution, avian collision and animal-caused outages. EDM’s key to success is its team members, who are chosen for their unique and complementary skills and who conduct their work with passion, creativity and integrity.