EDM International, Inc. (EDM) is an employee-owned corporation with a three-decade reputation for excellence. EDM’s Environmental Services Group is a team of wildlife biologists, avian specialists, soil scientists, hydrologists, regulatory specialists and GIS experts. EDM works collaboratively across disciplines to develop practical, science-based solutions to high-profile environmental challenges on behalf of electric utilities, extractive industries, government agencies and non-governmental organizations. EDM is internationally known for research and consultation on avian electrocution, avian collision and animal-caused outages. EDM’s key to success is its team members, who are chosen for their unique and complementary skills and who conduct their work with passion, creativity and integrity.
EDM has developed over 110 Avian Protection Plans (APPs) for small and large electric utilities, mining companies, oil and gas operators and federal agencies, throughout the U.S. and abroad. APPs and Avian Risk Assessments (ARAs) provide a roadmap for managing avian and wildlife interactions with power lines, substations and other aboveground structures such as mining/oil and gas infrastructure, communication towers and wind facilities. Clients report that EDM APPs improve system reliability, public relations and regulatory compliance; agencies reviewing the APPs describe them as exemplary. EDM’s ARAs and mitigation recommendations are the industry gold standard.
Avian Protection/Reliability Services:
- Electrocution & Collision Risk Assessments
- New Construction Standards
- Avian-Friendly Retrofits & Mitigation
- Bird Streamer & Pollution Review
- Animal-caused Outage Studies
- Substation Design
- Perch & Nest Management
- Avian Reporting
- Training & Workshops
- Litigation Support
EDM developed an APP and ARA for a large investor-owned utility with over 20,000 miles of distribution and transmission lines across a major metropolitan region with globally important bird habitat. A GIS-based analysis of bird use, habitat and infrastructure data identified target survey areas. Field biologists assessed dozens of avian and power line variables to determine avian electrocution and collision risk; for each hazardous structure or line span, EDM assigned a retrofit priority and developed a retrofitting approach. The deliverables provided short- and long-term planning tools for reducing avian risk and improving system reliability. Updated construction standards and training modules were developed to ensure the plans were fully implemented and reliability and conservation goals were achieved. Tailored communications materials were developed to facilitate company outreach among customers, regulators and employees.
The Avian Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) offers a new approach to reducing avian collision mortality with suspended obstacles (power lines, towers, turbines).
ACAS uses ultraviolet (UV) light visible to birds but not to people to “light up” collision hotspots at night when most bird collisions occur. Birds see and avoid otherwise invisible wires. It can be used on spans with or without existing line markers to illuminate all the wires across entire spans. Internal sensors and remote operation allow ACAS to be activated only when needed, like during bird migration nights, and to be shut down the rest of the year.
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James “JD” Dwyer
Supporting Research in Europe
The ACAS is part of the SafeLines4Birds (SL4B) projected funded by the European Union. ACAS units are being deployed at locations in France and Belgium where high numbers of avian collisions with power lines have been recorded.
For more information, see the SL4B project pages at:
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The ACAS is a novel solution. So far it is working well across a variety of species, habitats, and line configurations, but we want to know more.What species does the ACAS work best with?
- Is the ACAS more effective in some habitats or with configurations than others?
- Will the ACAS be as effective on other suspended obstacles like communication towers and wind turbines?
ACAS studies are ongoing, but EDM is always interested in learning more. If you are working to manage collisions, and you are considering the ACAS, we are here for you. We invite you to partner with us on study design, data collection, analyses, and publication of results.
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James “JD” Dwyer
LIFE SafeLines4Birds project
SafeLines4Birds is a 6-year project co-financed by European Union’s LIFE Programme which aims to reduce non-natural mortality of 13 birds species along power lines in France, Belgium and Portugal.
Why is this project important?
Major threats to some bird species include collisions with power lines, electrocution, and disturbances during their breeding season. These threats cause the deaths of millions of individuals in Europe yearly and in some cases seriously threaten the viability of species populations.
Some European species are more vulnerable given their size, morphology, behaviour, and distribution. Thus, the project targets 13 species most impacted by power lines in France, Belgium and Portugal: Little Bustard, Bearded Vulture, Bonelli’s Eagle, Cinereous Vulture, Egyptian Vulture, Lesser Kestrel, Common Crane, Osprey, White Stork, Black Stork, Eurasian Woodcock, Eurasian Curlew, Northern Lapwing.
SafeLines4Birds project relies on four main goals:
- Reducing bird collision
- Reducing bird electrocution
- Reducing bird disturbance
- Improving and sharing knowledge across Europe
To tackle collision, the project aims to install 3,880 anti-collision diverters on the most dangerous sites. However, those devices are not suitable in all situations and their success rate varies according to species or geographical factors. Therefore, new anti-collision devices will be tested, such as the American ultra-violet Avian Collision System Avoidance system (ACAS), which uses shining UV light on power lines to make them more visible to birds at night. Moreover, innovative installation methods of collision avoidance devices will be tested within the project, such as the use of drones. In some cases, lines will be placed underground to completely eliminate the risk of collision and electrocution in particularly high-risk areas.
There is a strong scientific consensus that the risk of bird electrocution depends on the technical construction and detailed design of electric facilities. In order to reduce this risk, dangerous power poles will be retrofitted and insulated, and deterrence devices installed at the higher risk sites. Platforms and perches will also be set up to protect birds that roost or nest.
Finally, to avoid disturbance, grid maintenance and surveillance methodologies will be adapted – where possible in line with the breeding periods of the target species – to improve their breeding success. As much as possible, flying over breeding sites will be avoided and use of helicopters will be limited.
All results collected will be shared in an open and standardised way, benefiting the understanding about bird-grid interactions and the effectiveness of the tested mitigation measures. A SafeLines4Birds open digital platform will be created to centralise all technical information gathered during the project. This will facilitate the dissemination of knowledge regarding technical innovations and equipment across Europe and, through this, support the replication of actions in other countries.
The success of these actions relies on the collaboration of 15 consortium partners, which include Transmission System Operators (TSO), Distribution System Operators (DSO), NGOs and scientific experts from France, Belgium, Portugal, Germany, and the United States.
Who are the partners?
Relying on existing partnerships in France, Belgium and Portugal, the project is coordinated by the Ligue Pour La Protection des Oiseaux (LPO France), the French branch of BirdLife. The other French partners are Enedis (French DSO), Réseau De Transport D'électricité – RTE (French TSO), LPO Pays De La Loire, LPO Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, LPO Occitanie and LPO Provence Alpes Côte d’Azur (local NGOs). Those partners created in 2004 the Avifauna National Committee that aims to reduce the impacts of energy infrastructure on biodiversity and initiated the project SafeLines4Birds. In Portugal the project partners are the Sociedade Portuguesa Para O Estudo das Aves - SPEA (NGO) and E-Redes (Portuguese DSO), and in Belgium Natuurpunt, Natagora (NGOs) and Elia (Belgian TSO).
Joining those partners, EDM International, a US-based corporation, brings a team of wildlife biologists and avian specialists to the consortium. BIOPOLIS-CIBIO is a Portuguese research centre associated to the University of Porto contributing to the project with their expertise on the biodiversity impacts of energy infrastructure through collaborations with TSOs and DSOs in Portugal and across Europe. Finally, RGI brings its expertise in facilitating multi-stakeholder exchanges between diverse partners and its extensive experience coordinating and implementing activities related to the communication and dissemination of projects.
EDM staff is experienced with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and complex third-party, multi-agency permitting and compliance projects. EDM specializes in the practical implementation of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) and the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA). EDM offers environmental clearances prior to construction, environmental compliance monitoring services and turnkey stormwater solutions for projects resulting in substantial surface disturbance. EDM excels at proactive communication and facilitates collaborative solutions addressing the needs of permit applicants, land managers and regulatory agencies. EDM conducts regulatory trainings to help clients understand and comply with the regulatory framework, while maximizing their own professional effectiveness.
Related Technical Specialties Include:
- NEPA Analysis
- ESA Section 7MBTA & BGEPA
- Permitting & Reporting
- Wildlife & Nesting Clearances
- Stormwater Permitting & Mitigation
- Environmental Compliance Monitoring
- Regulatory Affairs Analysis & Training
FEATURED PROJECTAs a third-party designee under both NEPA and ESA, EDM analyzed potential impacts from a 115kV transmission line rebuild across multiple land jurisdictions with three federal oversight agencies. EDM navigated and facilitated complex interagency communications; assessed multi-disciplinary impacts across federal, state and private lands in a high-profile and biologically sensitive area; conducted an avian collision risk assessment across miles of a National Wildlife Refuge; implemented detailed wetlands analyses and mitigation planning; conducted pre-construction biological surveys; and managed construction and post-construction environmental monitoring. EDM’s specialized knowledge of avian risks and mitigation allayed agency concerns, substantially accelerating the permitting process and ultimately, project completion.
EDM’s technical specialists in wildlife, plants, wetlands, soils and surface waters conduct baseline studies to scope environmental issues, provide the framework for impact assessments and identify opportunities for avoidance or mitigation. EDM proactively identifies project-specific environmental issues early in the planning process and incorporates protection measures into the project description to streamline assessments, optimize timelines and minimize costs. Scaled to meet client goals, studies range from desktop GIS analyses to field-based habitat assessments, nest searches, or presence/absence surveys.
Related Technical Specialties Include:
- Special Status Species
- Seasonal Bird Use & Presence
- Trapping, Tagging, & Tracking
- Habitat Assessment
- Surface Water & Soils Assessment
- Runoff & Erosion Modeling
- Post-fire Risk Analysis & Mitigation
- Integrated Resource Assessment
- Linear Routing
- Infrastructure Siting
- Construction Work Plan Development
On behalf of a small electric cooperative, EDM developed a 5-year Construction Work Plan (CWP) for existing and proposed power line rights-of-way (ROWs) on federal and private lands to prevent costly and disruptive permitting delays. EDM developed an interactive mapping tool incorporating utility infrastructure/ROWs and sensitive species/habitat data from multiple sources. The tool was used to: a) identify areas where sensitive species could interfere with planned construction and maintenance; b) identify opportunities to schedule work for seasons that would avoid or minimize potential impacts; and c) develop a realistic work schedule that allowed adequate time, where needed, for federal and state permitting. The CWP and associated report allowed the cooperative to optimize their schedule and planning, facilitated permitting by providing appropriate Best Management Practices to minimize or mitigate potential impacts, ensured regulatory compliance and clear agency communications and prevented project delays associated with environmental “surprises.”
EDM’s expertise in environmental permitting and compliance, avian overhead line studies and communication tower studies has facilitated the company’s expansion into wind facility review and assessment. The wind industry and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are encouraging wind developers to apply approaches and measures similar to those used in avian protection plans for electric utilities to prepare applicable protection plans for wind energy facilities to minimize potential effects to birds and bats and aid in complying with key federal legislation, including the MBTA, ESA, BGEPA and NEPA. EDM’s team has experience with the applicable federal, state, county and/or local permitting and compliance requirements that are becoming more integral to wind facility planning. Most importantly, EDM can provide insight for both short- and long-term project planning, encompassing regulatory knowledge, established and proven practices, standardized methods and metrics and proactive communications. EDM co-authored a detailed review of avian collision studies with communication towers for the FCC in 2004. EDM also has conducted post-construction bird collision studies to determine the potential long-term collision risk to birds from tower operation.
Applicable Experience Includes:
- Pre-Construction Screening
- Preliminary & Detailed Wildlife & Plant Baseline Studies
- Federal, State, & Local Permitting & Compliance
- Section 7 review under the ESA
- Post-Construction Surveys
FEATURED PROJECTTasked with delineating priority structures for eagle-friendly electrical retrofits in a 12,000‑square-mile service territory, EDM modeled the region in GIS, using habitat, nesting and observational data to calculate the relative priority of each 30-meter grid cell. In an iterative process, features in each data layer were assigned positive or negative weights based on the scientific literature and EDM’s deep expertise in avian protection planning. Priority areas were smoothed and aggregated using nearest-neighbor techniques, generating minimum-sized polygons for field personnel and planners. Deliverables included identification of eagle priority areas and an ESRI model, facilitating improvements and updates as new data become available.
EDM has a talented and experienced GIS team that supports both internal projects and consults directly to clients. The GIS team provides state-of-the-art mapping and spatial analysis support with the latest ArcGIS, AutoCAD and CartoPac software and Trimble hardware featuring sub-foot GPS accuracy. The team focuses on database design, geospatial app development/configuration, project operations tracking, and predictive modeling. GIS serves as the “hub” for all inspection projects including virtual inspections as data and deliverables flow through GIS. Where needed, spatial data is collected in the field using custom, project-specific forms based on CartoPac’s GPS/GIS-enabled mobile data collection platform. Mobile data collection integrated with cloud-based mapping streamlines workflow, improves accuracy, and maximizes worker efficiency.
The GIS team also works heavily with project and asset managers to model risk to assets, select scope for future mitigation work, and track and geospatially visualize progress throughout any given phase of a project. Web-based apps are used to raise visibility and share data across a wide array of stakeholders.
GIS/Geospatial areas of technical specialties include:
- Maps and Cartography
- Facility and Resource Mapping
- Spatial Analysis and Statistical Modeling
- Mobile Data Collection and High-Accuracy GNSS
- Database Design
- Project Development/Tracking
- Dashboards and Reporting
- UAS Product Processing
- ArcGIS Enterprise and ArcGIS Online
- Scripting and app development
EDM’s team of industry experts combines decades of experience and state-of-the-art technology know-how with a client-centered, collaborative approach to developing and implementing safe, reliable, compliant, cost-effective, cross-functional, programmatic solutions for utility vegetation management (UVM), including:
T&D & Pipeline Vegetation Management Program Assessment, Development, Implementation and Optimization
- Existing UVM Program Review & Gap Analysis
- Strategic & Tactical Planning
- Reliability-Centered Maintenance Strategies
- Turnkey Program Management
- Workload Studies
- Work Prioritization
- Work Optimization
- Best Management Practices
- Integrated Vegetation Management Planning
- Tree Risk Assessment & Mitigation
- Vegetation-Caused Outage Analysis
- Regulatory Compliance (FAC-003, State, etc.)
- UVM Process Review & Mapping
- Value Proposition/Business Plan Development
- QA/QC & Continuous Improvement
- ROW Stewardship Accreditation
- Internal/External Stakeholder Collaboration & Communication
Strategic & Sustainable Sourcing For UVM Services
- Utility Operations/Sourcing/Procurement/Vendors Collaboration
- Identify Sourcing Opportunities (Worker Recruiting, Retention, Risk Reduction)
- Current State Assessment
- Strategy Development
- Best-of-Breed Contractor Selection
- Strategy Implementation
- Accountability Establishment
- Continuous Improvement
Remote Sensing, Software, Virtual Inspection, Geospatial
- Cross-Functional Remote Sensing Program Development
- Remote Sensing Evaluation & Selection (LiDAR, Hi-Res, Spectral, IR, Sat., UAS)
- Data Analysis & Analytics
- Virtual Inspection
- UVM Work Management Software Strategies
- Software Evaluation, Selection & Implementation
- Geospatial/GIS Solutions
Federal Land Strategies (US Forest Service, BLM, Etc.)
- Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) Development
- Special Use Permits (SUP) – Review, Modification, Acquisition & Renewal
- Navigating Regulations & Compliance
- Environmental Reviews Guidance
- Operating Plan Dev. & Implementation
- Work Approval & Execution
Expert Witness Testimony & Litigation Support
- Independent Expert Testimony
- Technical Evidence, Analysis & Interpretation
- Fact Research & Documentation
- Regulator Query Support
- Rate Case Hearing Support & Testimony
The increased frequency of apex fire weather conditions, combined with aging infrastructure, declining forest health and increased human development in wildland areas, have created significant challenges for utilities operating in wildfire-prone areas.
EDM’s team of experts collaborates with utilities, independent operators and government agencies/regulators to develop and implement cross-functional, programmatic solutions for wildfire prevention and protection, including:
WILDFIRE MITIGATION PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT & IMPLEMENTATION
- Fire-Safe Culture & Change Management
- Risk Assessment & Prioritization
- Hazardous Fire Area (HFA) Delineation
- GIS/FIS/Geospatial Analysis & Prioritization
- Wildfire Mitigation Plan (WMP) Development
- WMP Gap Analysis
- Strategic & Tactical Planning
- Remote Sensing (LiDAR, Imagery, etc.)
- Daily Situational Awareness/Fire Potential Index
- Public Safety Power Shutoff Plan (PSPS)
- Fire Incident Coordination & Response
- Ignition Management Program (IMP)
- Field Work Ignition Mitigations & Procedure for Escalating Wildfire Weather
- Asset Hardening (Lines, Subs, Telecoms)
- Grid Resiliency
- WMP KPIs & Continuous Improvement
- Internal/External Stakeholder Collaborations & Communication
ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION
- Fire-Wise Siting
- Fire Hardened Design & Construction
- Ignition-Prone Equipment & Facilities Alternatives
- Pole Loading & Clearance Adequacy Assessments
- Underground Design
- End-of-Life (EOL) Assessment
- Ignition Risk Assessment
- Asset Inventory, Inspection & Condition Assessment
- Retrofit Work Prioritization, Implementation, and Auditing
- Asset Protection Analysis, Prioritization & Implementation
- Facility Retrofitting for Fire Hardening
Environmental & Weather
- Avian/Wildlife-Caused Ignition Risk Assessment, Prioritization & Mitigation
- Wildlife Retrofit Work Prioritization, Implementation & Auditing
- Wildlife-Friendly Facility Design
- Meteorological/Wind Studies
- Monitoring Station Vetting, Siting & Deployment
Utility Vegetation Management (UVM)
- Enhanced UVM Program Development
- Tree Risk Assessment & Mitigation
- Fuels Management & Reduction
- Pole Clearance Program & Compliance
- Vegetation-Caused Outage Analysis & Targeted UVM
- Pre-Fire Inspections (Asset, Vegetation)
- Fire Retardant Applications/Fire Protection
- Wood Pole Restoration
- Post-Fire Damage Assessment & Construction Surveys
- Fire Behavior, Electric Safety & Ignition Suppression Training
EDM provides state-of-the-art mapping and spatial analysis support with the latest ArcGIS, AutoCAD and CartoPac software and Trimble hardware featuring sub-foot GPS accuracy. A full project cycle might include planning and field study maps, make-ready work drawings, a construction atlas, as-built drawings and an operations and maintenance plan atlas. Where needed, spatial data is collected in the field using custom, project-specific forms based on CartoPac’s GPS/GIS-enabled mobile data collection platform. EDM uses natural resources data to model environmental impacts, compare project alternatives and develop appropriate mitigation measures. Mobile data collection integrated with cloud-based mapping streamlines work flow, improves accuracy and maximizes worker efficiency.
GIS Technical Specialties Include:
- APP, ARA & Permitting & Compliance Support
- Mobile Data Collection Hardware, Software, & Integration
- Cartography & Graphic Design
- Full Project Cycle Map Development
- Siting & Routing Comparative Analyses
- Statistical & Spatial Modeling
- Cloud-based GIS Integration
- Scripting & Automation
- Geodatabase & Workflow Development
- System & Asset Mapping
FEATURED PROJECTTasked with delineating priority structures for eagle-friendly electrical retrofits in a 12,000‑square-mile service territory, EDM modeled the region in GIS, using habitat, nesting, and observational data to calculate the relative priority of each 30-meter grid cell. In an iterative process, features in each data layer were assigned positive or negative weights based on the scientific literature and EDM’s deep expertise in avian protection planning. Priority areas were smoothed and aggregated using nearest-neighbor techniques, generating minimum-sized polygons for field personnel and planners. Deliverables included identification of eagle priority areas and an ESRI model, facilitating improvements and updates as new data become available.
EDM uses a variety of UAS aircraft, flight control systems and post processing systems to tailor missions to meet specific objectives identified by clients. Missions can be as small as confirmation of activity in a single bird nest, or as large as multiple miles of distribution line, transmission line, or gas pipeline rights-of-way. EDM carefully maintains currency in aircraft, sensor technologies and payloads, flight and analysis software and pilot certifications. Our multiple certified pilots ensure flexibility and timeliness in responding to customer needs. Our ability to leverage LiDAR, PhoDAR and infrared technologies ensures that flight parameters meet mission goals.
Recent UAS Projects Include:
- Distribution Line & Equipment Inspection
- Transmission Line & Equipment Inspection
- Gas Line & Natural Areas Inspection
- Pre- & Post-Construction Documentation
- 3D Photogrammetry (PhoDAR point clouds)
- Orthomosaic Imagery
- Terrain Modeling
- Transmission Phase Identification
- Installation of Collision Mitigation Line Markers
- Avian Nest Status Checks
- UAS Environmental Applications Document for the Electric Power Research Institute
EDM seeks objective, decision-relevant and science-based answers to difficult challenges. EDM maintains an active applied research program, combining expertise in wildlife study design, engineering and product development. EDM partners with industries and industry groups, government agencies, non-governmental organizations and academia to develop practical solutions to pressing concerns. EDM strives to expand the scientific understanding of wildlife interactions with electric utility infrastructure, improve the effectiveness of mitigation products and develop new technology for monitoring and preventing interactions between wildlife and infrastructure.
Findings are disseminated through peer-reviewed papers, conference presentations, reports, monograph contributions and DVDs, as permissible under the terms of our partner and licensing agreements. EDM provides consulting on study design, data collection protocols and statistical analysis and has developed a number of commercially successful products, both independently and with industry partners.
Recent Applied Research and R&D Projects Include:
- Predictive Avian Electrocution Model
- Perch Deterrent Effectiveness Study
- Nest Deterrent Effectiveness Study
- Line Marking Effectiveness Analysis
- Woodpecker Damage Prevention Study
- Pole Repair Products Testing
- Migratory Response to New Transmission Line
- Wildlife Insulation Materials Evaluation
- UAV-assisted Line Marker Installation
- Automated Avian Hazing Field Study
The Bird Strike Indicator (BSI), developed by EDM, is an automated monitoring tool that detects and records bird strikes on overhead wires or guy wires, and transmits real time data to remote desktops. BSIs have been deployed throughout the U.S. (including Alaska) and in Europe, Africa and the Pacific Islands. Utility companies, permitting agencies, and industry researchers have used the BSI to identify high risk power line segments, evaluate collision risks to sensitive bird species, and determine the effectiveness of line marking devices. BSIs have been used to determine the need — or lack thereof — for both proactive and reactive line marking. The BSI recently was specified as NEPA-required mitigation for a new, high-profile transmission line bisecting a critical migration corridor.
Guide to Raptor Remains
In order to address avian fatalities, many utilities now check equipment for potential areas that may pose hazards for birds. A common method is to look under power lines for dead birds. Identifying species for these fatalities is important for a number of reasons. When decomposed carcasses, bone pieces, feathers or pellets are found under electrical structures, it can be difficult to identify the species. This guide provides a resource for identifying partial remains of selected avian species.
In partnership with PIER, EDM has developed and made available a photographic guide to identifying the remains of selected species of raptors.
EDM’s Environmental Services Group is a team of wildlife biologists, avian specialists, soil scientists, hydrologists, regulatory specialists and GIS experts. EDM works collaboratively across disciplines to develop practical, science-based solutions to high-profile environmental challenges on behalf of electric utilities, extractive industries, government agencies and non-governmental organizations. EDM is internationally known for research and consultation on avian electrocution, avian collision and animal-caused outages. EDM’s key to success is its team members, who are chosen for their unique and complementary skills and who conduct their work with passion, creativity and integrity.
Video: Raptors at Risk
Video: Raptors at Risk EDM’s role is often that of educator through serving as host or participant in workshops on animal interactions with electric utility infrastructure. Educational projects include the development of an interactive web site on raptor electrocutions for the California Energy Commission, http://bems.edmlink.com, and a product encyclopedia of mitigating products for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EDM co-produced the award winning video/DVD “Raptors at Risk,” as well as a photographic field guide for identifying raptor remains. To purchase these publications and view a list of the Environmental Services Group publications, please contact us at the number below or via email.
Click here to order a copy of the "Raptors at Risk" video.
Bird Strike Indicator - BSI
BSI is an automated, cost-effective tool for continuous detection and recording of bird collisions on power and communication lines.
The Bird Strike Indicator (BSI) is an automated vibration-sensing and recording tool designed to detect bird strikes on aerial cables such as power lines and guy wires. It affordably provides utilities the ability to identify the most dangerous line segments and determine the effectiveness of line marking devices. The BSI uses accelerometers to record stress waves and vibrations caused by a bird strike. The BSI sensors are installed on the monitored wires and transmit strike activity wirelessly to a nearby base station where the data is recorded.